Time is Money: How Millennials can take advantage of it
When it comes to investing for retirement, Millennials — usually defined as people born between 1981 and 1996 — face some unique challenges. Most Millennials entered adulthood after 9/11, the 2008 financial crisis, and the Great Recession. Many are burdened by student loans and other consumer debt. And all are affected by rapidly rising health care expenses and other costs of living. So it’s no surprise that many young people are gun-shy when it comes to investing.
At the same time, higher life expectancies mean that Millennials may need their retirement savings to last 20 to 30 years or more. Given the daunting prospect of potentially outliving your nest egg, you need to start saving for retirement while you’re still young.
Make time work
The good news is that time and the compounding effect of reinvesting earnings are a powerful combination. The earlier you start saving, the longer your time horizon, which means you can set aside less money but end up with more.
Suppose that Kayla begins investing $7,000 per year at age 25 and stops at age 45. Assuming she earns a 7% annual return, she’ll have accumulated more than $1.1 million by the time she reaches age 65. In contrast, Kayla’s friend, Ethan, doesn’t start saving until age 45, when he begins to invest $14,000 per year and also earns a 7% annual return. When Ethan reaches age 65, his savings will have grown to around $574,000. By starting early, Kayla invests half as much as Ethan but ends up with nearly twice as much.
Investment and brokerage account fees can have an enormous impact on your long-term returns, so it’s important to understand these fees and, when possible, take steps to reduce them. Examples include brokerage fees, commissions, transaction fees, advisory fees and sales loads. It’s particularly easy to overlook mutual fund expense ratios because these fees are built into a fund’s return and may be difficult to ascertain.
It pays to do your homework and compare fees among various investment options. Even a small reduction in fees can substantially increase your returns over time. For example, suppose you plan to invest $10,000 per year for 30 years in a mutual fund that earns a 7% annual return. You’re considering two comparable funds, but one charges a 0.75% expense ratio, and the other charges 0.25%. A difference of 0.5% doesn’t sound like a lot, but choosing the more expensive fund will cost you more than $75,000.
Don’t be afraid of risk
Millennials have witnessed intense volatility in the stock markets in recent years, so it’s no surprise that many of them are reluctant to invest their savings inequities. But while more conservative investments, such as cash and bonds, may be appropriate for shorter-term goals, when it comes to long-term retirement savings, Millennials shouldn’t fear the stock market. History shows us that, over the long term, stocks generate higher returns despite short-term fluctuations. In fact, the stock market hasn’t declined in value during any rolling 15-year period since 1926.
Of course, past performance is no guarantee of future results, and it’s possible to lose money in any stock investment. But Millennials with a well-balanced, diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, and cash should feel reasonably comfortable about their ability to achieve their retirement goals with a tolerable level of risk.
You can also build a diversified portfolio as part of an IRA account or employer-provided retirement plan, such as a 401(k). These vehicles allow your savings to potentially grow on a tax-deferred basis — or even tax-free if you have the option of contributing to a Roth IRA or Roth 401(k) — substantially increasing possible returns. And some employers offer matching contributions, which can boost your savings even more. If your employer matches, try to contribute at least that percentage of your salary to ensure you don’t leave matching funds on the table.
Millennials struggling to pay off student loans and other debts may be tempted to put off investing for retirement. But as you can see, there are enormous advantages to starting early. No amount is too small and even modest investments now can pay off handsomely down the road.